Том 14 № 4

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  • Документ
    (2021) I. Kuznietsova, I. Khomychak, J. Petrova, Yu Haibin, M. Yarmolyuk, S. Tkachenko
    It has been studied how tomato powder can be used in the production of mayonnaise. The content of essential amino acids in tomato powder has been compared with the FAO/WHO norms. Fresh plum tomatoes contain 0.158g of non-essential amino acids (in terms of 100g of dry matter), which covers 4.37% of the body’s requirements according to the standardised values approved by FAO/WHO. Tomato powder contains 0.14g of non-essential amino acids. The amount of essential amino acids in fresh tomatoes is 0.216g per 100g, and in powder, it is 0.181g per 100g. The amino acids that determine the intensity of sweetness have been established to amount to 0.165g in 100g of fresh tomatoes and to 0.116g in 100g of powder. So, in the course of drying, the product’s taste qualities related to feeling sweetness are reduced. It has been determined that the organoleptic properties of a product can be improved by adding tomato powder in the amount 1.8–2.2% and using a blend of oils. The mayonnaise samples obtained were cream-coloured with red particles of tomato powder. The samples had a soft structure and a more uniform and viscous texture than the control sample. The microscopic method has shown the homogeneous consistency of the product obtained. It has  been noted that the absence of structure-forming agents does not reduce the quality indicators and does not impair the consistency of the finished product. According to the organoleptic parameters, the dose of tomato powder has been determined, which improves the taste of mayonnaise and does not make it oversweet. The research results show the prospects of using tomato powder not only as a carotene-containing raw material, but also as a raw material with a high content of amino acids. Besides, the use of tomato powder can modify the taste of such a product as mayonnaise.
  • Документ
    (2021) G. M. Stankevich, A. Kats, V. Shpak
    The structure of loading different crops onto vessels at the company Ukrelevatorprom’s grain terminal has been considered. The total grain shipped in 2012–2015 was comprised of 33.7–41.5% of maize, 19.7– 32.2% of wheat, 14.4–26.0% of rapeseed, 6.7–14.2% of barley, and 5.4– 11.0% of soya beans. When forming a 35,000-tonne grain shipload, grain  lots stored in silos are sometimes of lower quality than contracts require: the protein and gluten contents can be inappropriate, or there can be smut grains or those damaged by sunn pests. The accepted technology of grain shipload formation does not guarantee that the grain quality will be uniform throughout the whole period of loading a vessel, especially in the beginning. In the first 1,000 tonnes of a grain shipload formed, the weight content of  wet gluten was found to be 22.6% instead of 23%, the Falling Number was 145–180 s instead of 230s, and the content of smut grains was not the tolerable 5%, but 6.95–7.8%. The subsequent 2,000–3,000 tonnes of wheat, too, had the Falling Number lower than the contract prescribed (142–215 s), and only further on, its value achieved the required range 295–356 s. In the wheat sample formed from 5,000 tonnes, only the test values of the Falling Number (176s) and the content of smut grains (5.1%) were different from what the contract required. The calculated arithmetic means of the quality parameters of the 5,000-tonne wheat samples formed were practically the same as those determined experimentally, except for the values of the Falling Number and the smut grain content. The values of the coefficient of variation obtained showed that the grain lot was of non-uniform quality: it varied in such parameters as the foreign material (20.82–50.93%), sunn pest-damaged grains (7.41–25.76%), Falling Number (8.76–36.36%), and smut grain content (35.88–78.34%). Application of linear programming methods to optimise the shipload composition has allowed all the quality parameters to meet the contract requirements. Loading grain from all silos simultaneously, with the optimum flow ratio, will result in its even distribution in a shipload, and the grain lot will be of higher quality by all  the parameters the contract specifies.
  • Документ
    (2021) O. Malynka, Y. Malynka, O. Antipina, L. Gural, G. Stepanova, A. Kryganovska
    Expertise of four samples of potato snacks with  the flavours Barbecue, Ketchup, Cheese, Sour Cream and Onion has been carried out with the use of analytical physicochemical methods. It has been found that the mass fraction of moisture in the samples under study ranges 4.4 to 4.7%, and the mass fraction of chlorides does not exceed 2.5%. The mass fraction of starch, which was determined polarimetrically, varies from 66.1% (Sample 2) to 66.7% (Sample 3). The mass fraction of sugars in the potato snack samples does not exceed 1.9%. None of the samples contains foreign material and mineral impurities. The product’s physicochemical quality parameters established by the tests conform to the manufacturer’s indication that the product contains such ingredients as starch and potatoes (starch and proteins are part of potatoes), oil, maltodextrin, sugars, salt, proteins. Based on characteristic absorption bands in the composition of snacks, FTIR has allowed detecting the presence of the two main components: triglycerides of fatty acids (oils)  and polysaccharides (the latter include starches and maltodextrins). Optical microscopy has revealed that the samples have a porous (cellular) structure, with pores distributed throughout the whole mass, which is typical of snacks. Heat treatment of the snacks in the course of extrusion and frying changes the structure of starch to the glassy state: only single whole starch grains are found in the samples. The dietary supplement monosodium glutamate E621 has been identified by thin-layer chromatography on chromatographic plates Sorbfil AF-A-UV. The mobile phases were mixtures of ethanol and distilled water in the ratio 7:3, and n- butanol, acetic acid, and water mixed in the ratio 3:1:1. It has been shown that the turmeric extract E100(i), a natural yellow food colourant, being adsorbed on potato snacks, can be identified in them by its own spectra of diffuse reflection and luminescence spectra, without destroying the samples.
  • Документ
    (2021) A. Khodakov, O. Tkachenko, G. Sarkisyan, O. Radionova, T. Suhachenko
    By using the classical technology of making dry white wines, which does not involve maceration of the pomace, we can produce standard table wines, light and delicate. This minimises such an objectionable factor as saturation of the wine with extra nitrogenous and phenolic substances and oxidative enzymes. On the other hand, this scheme gives a specific varietal aroma no chance to reveal itself more expressively. The paper overviews briefly the scientific works considering the modes of pomace maceration before fermentation and the use of enzyme preparations in the technology of white table wines. The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of wine materials from Rkatsiteli grapes grown in the south of the Mykolaiv Region have been analysed. This analysis has proved that standard white table wine materials can be obtained both by the traditional method (the so called ‘white’ method) and with the use of short-term maceration of the pomace. Macerating the pomace resulted in obtaining fuller, richer wine materials with a bright aroma and good body. It has been shown that to obtain bright and not too blunt wine materials, the most essential parameter of the maceration process is its low temperature. A pectolytic enzyme preparation used during maceration increased, to some extent, the mass concentration of phenolic substances, the reduced extract, the optical density, and the concentration of terpene alcohols. Besides, it allowed fuller revealing a wine’s aromatic profile. The research has resulted in establishing that there is regularity in how the concentration of terpene alcohols changes with different temperature conditions of steeping the pomace. It has been shown that the maximum concentration of terpenes responsible for the varietal aroma is best retained in wine materials when the maceration temperature is 5°C. A rise in the pomace maceration temperature to 20°C led to a decrease in the concentration of labile terpene alcohols, so it should be avoided in producing quality wines. Studying different maceration modes has allowed recommending a certain method to manufacture full-bodied, well-structured white table wines with a pronounced varietal aroma. This method involves adding the enzyme preparation Depectil CLARIFICATION to the pomace and macerating it for 12 hours at 5°C.
  • Документ
    (2021) Afsaneh Moeini, Masoud Shafafi Masoud Shafafi Zenoozian, Hojjat Karazhiyan, Amir Hossein Elhami Rad, Ahmad Pedram Nia
    Millets are gaining attention due to their many advantages in cultivation and overall nutritional benefits. Research has been carried out to explore the nutritional properties of various millets. However, the use of millets in today’s food processing is minimal as compared to wheat. Three minor millets, namely foxtail, proso, and pearl millets grown in Iran were used in this study. The  water  absorption characteristics and hardness of these millets have been investigated. The effect that millet flours incorporated in dough have on its rheology has been studied and compared with the effect of wheat on dough rheology. The moisture content of millets increased with an increase in the water temperature, and a regular increase in the water absorption capacity, too, was observed as the temperature rose. The hardness of the millet decreased with an increase in the moisture content of the grains. Pearl millet has been found to have the lowest hardness irrespective of the steeping time and temperature. Incorporation  of millet in the dough adversely affected the dough rheology in terms of workability and baking quality. Proso millet highly negatively affected the dough rheology in terms of dough hardness, stability, and dynamic rheological properties. This research highlights the possibility to predict the water absorption characteristics of millet grains to be used to optimise the conditions under which millets are steeped in various bioprocessing operations. It is supposed that on performing proper baking trials to compare the properties of composite flours made from these millets, the results of the rheological studies will prove beneficial and the rheological properties and behaviour will be accurately correlated when the food is applied practically.