Том 13 № 3

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Зараз показуємо 1 - 5 з 16
  • Документ
    (2019) W. Lou, A Bezusov, B. Li, Н. Dubova
    The purpose of this review was to gain a deeper understanding of tannic acid (TA) and its properties, which could be important for improving the technology of gluten-free food. TA is widely used in agriculture, food, medicine, and other fields due to its unique physiological functions (anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, antibacterial, anti-viral, etc.). It can closely interact with proteins and polysaccharides, which can significantly influence the structure, function, and nutritional properties of compounds. In this article, TA is chosen as a polyphenol model, and the structure of tannins and the degree of their extraction have been considered systematically. Prospective application of interaction between TA and common biological macromolecules have been presented. In this review, different classes of tannins are summarized. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods of extracting tannins have also been described. This review provides detailed information about the mechanisms of interaction of TA with biological macromolecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. Maize, buckwheat, rice flour and starch should be introduced as non-traditional raw materials in production of pasta for people ill with coeliac disease. Pasta dough from unconventional raw materials has non-standard rheological characteristics, and it is difficult to impart good plastic properties to it. That is why, studying the properties of tannins is necessary to improve the technology of gluten-free pasta. However, due to the different nature and composition of proteins, gluten-free foods do not have a network structure. So, they can hold neither water nor starch granules, their prepared dough is loose, with low viscosity, and is not easily moulded. That is why, the use of tannin to form a strong structure when developing a gluten-free pasta technology has become the main purpose of the research. Some potential problems of gluten-free dough processing can be solved by using new technical means. In view of this, the authors put forward the idea of using TА to form cross-links and a strong gluten-free dough structure.
  • Документ
    (2019) B. Iegorov, I. Cherneha, L. Fihurska, О. Tsiundyk
    The main task of the compound feed industry is development and introduction of high-performance equipment and technologies, expansion of the resource base and the range of finished products. Along with this, in the canning industry, a lot of by-products are formed. By their chemical composition, they are as good as the main products. However, by-products of the canning industry are characterized by a high moisture content. They deteriorate very quickly and require immediate disposal. That is why, the purpose of the paper was to study the effect of heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the microflora of the feed additive made with the use of carrot pomace. The physical properties, chemical composition, sanitary quality, and permissible shelf life of carrot pomace have been determined. The optimum quantitative and qualitative composition of the feed additive have been reasoned and researched. It has been established that the process of extrusion improves the physical properties and increases the digestibility of nutrients. It also improves the sanitary condition and extends the shelf life of the additive. As a result of extrusion of the feed additive, the moisture content decreased by 32.2%, the angle of repose increased by 11.8%, the flowability decreased by 33.3%, the damaged starch content decreased by 33.2%, and the amount of water-soluble carbohydrates became 5 times as big. Besides, under the influence of high temperature and pressure, the total number of bacteria decreased by 89%, and that of mould fungi by 83%. During storage of the feed additive for 6 months, the QMAFAnM decreased by 32.5%. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem utilizing canning industry by-products, expand the raw material base and reduce feed consumption.
  • Документ
    (2019) I. Kuznetsova, G. Krusir, O. Garkovich, I. Kovalenko
    Baby food can contain harmful components that are very dangerous to little consumers. One of the most common harmful factors is heavy metals, in particular lead. It is known that introducing one extra microelement into the body changes not only the concentration of this element, but also the concentration of other elements. Disturbing the physiological balance of microelements leads to changes in complex enzymatic processes, which in turn violates the structure of tissue cells of individual organs. Studies by Russian scientists (T. Suldina and others) have determined, in milk for newborns, the maximum levels of lead (0.02 mg/kg), of cadmium (0.02 mg/kg), of arsenic (0.05 mg/kg). While studying certain samples of baby food, the method for determining the content of lead and other heavy metals was improved. Depending on the lead concentration, characteristic lines of both the ultraviolet and the visible spectral regions can be used. Monitoring heavy metals in infant milk has shown that lead, copper, and zinc are the main contaminants of the product. The concentration of toxic agents in baby milk depends on the type of raw materials and on the environmental conditions of their manufacture. To detect lead in products quickly and accurately, a method was used based on the emission spectral analysis. To this end, spectrographs ISP-28 and ISP-30 widely employed in industry and laboratory studies were taken, but the detection limits were lowered compared to those in the methods that had been used previously. Besides, the field-proven method for determining lead is applicable to detecting zinc and copper, too. An excess of lead by 0.08 mg/kg, copper by 0.07 mg/kg, zinc by 0.45 mg/kg was observed in the baby milk “Malyatko Premium 2.” In the milk “Bellakt 2,” the excessive amount of copper was 0.05 mg/kg, of zinc 0.20 mg/kg, of lead 0.05 mg/kg. In the baby milk “Nitricia Malyuk Istrynsky,” only zinc was found to exceed the normal level (by 0.1 mg/kg). The baby milks “Nutricia Milupa 2,” “Nestle Nestogen 2,” “HiPP Organic 2” do not contain excessive heavy metals, and thus, can be recommended as safe for consumption.
  • Документ
    (2019) S. Lehnert, О. Khomenko, A. Dubinina, V. Vinnikova, L. Tatar
    The article characterizes the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) as an oilseed crop widely spread in the world. It describes its biological value as well as the chemical and fatty acid composition. The study proves the practical importance of developing and introducing new blended functional purpose oils for Ukrainian people. It has been shown that blended oils contain significant amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The use of blended oils will correct the deficiency of essential fatty acids in the diet of our country’s population. It has been pointed out how promising it is to create new types of blended oils, with a balanced fatty acid composition, by combining peanut and linseed oils. The article describes the characteristics of the new blended peanut-linseed oils with additives made from vegetable raw materials. The evaluated parameters are the quality and safety of the new blended peanut-linseed oils with a garlic extract, rosehip extract, sorrel leaf extract, and black currant leaf extract. The fatty acid composition of the fat in the new blended oils has been studied to determine their quality. The safety assessment of the new oils with the additives from vegetable raw materials has been determined by the content of pesticides (HCH-gamma isomer, heptachlor, and DDT), mycotoxins (aflotoxin B1 and zearalenone), toxic elements (lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, and zinc), iron, and radionuclides (cesium-137 and strontium-90). The results obtained confirm that the new blended oils are safe. The blended oils have a high biological value when the ratio of w-6 to w-3 fatty acids is 4.9:1, and the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to polyunsaturated fatty acids is 1:1, which meets the standards of healthy nutrition. In terms of chemical and radiation safety, the new oils do not exceed the maximum permissible concentrations, confirming the safety of the newly developed oils.
  • Документ
    (2019) N. Lashko, G. Chausovsky, N. Derevianko, O. Brazhko
    The article deals with the effect the lighting conditions of storage have on the oxidation stability of vegetable oils of various unsaturation degrees and made by different technologies (raw-pressed and unrefined sunflower oil and flaxseed oil) according to the main oxidation parameters: peroxide value (PV), acid value (AV), and colour value. It has been experimentally established that in natural lighting, at the end of the shelf life, the PV of flaxseed oil increased most significantly, from 0.55·10-3 to 11.2·10-3 mmolO2/kg (20 times). The PV of sunflower oils varied less: in unrefined oil, it changed from 0.48·10-3 to 4.5·10-3 mmolO2/kg (9 times), in raw-pressed, from 0.3·10-3 to 4.4·10‑3 mmolO2/kg (14.7 times). Under artificial UV radiation, the PV of sunflower oil increased from 0.3 to 0.55 mmol O2/kg after 2 hours of the experiment, and remained practically unchanged. In the case of flaxseed oil, after a slight increase from 0.55 to 0.7 mmol O2/kg, within the same period of time, there was then a decrease in the PV to 0.45 mmol O2/kg, which may indicate a relative instability of hydroperoxides that, due to their degradation, converted into more stable secondary compounds. The analysis of the oil oxidation kinetics by the PV has shown that the average rates of peroxide compounds accumulation in unrefined, raw-pressed, and flaxseed oils was 47·10-4, 48·10-4, 127·10-4 mmol ½О/kg·hour, respectively. At the same time, under natural light, the true rate of change of the AV in the oils studied was uneven over time. At the beginning of the experiment, it increased (especially noticeably in the case of flaxseed oil), at the end of the shelf life (the 5th week), it was slowed down significantly, decreasing to negative values, and in flaxseed oil, it had zero value, which indicates a constant value of AV in the experimental setting.